Athlepedia, The Athletics Wiki
                          IN MAY 20, 2010 
                       In the London High Court W1
                 The London Borough Of Waltham forest
                     Adult and Childen Services
  On the grounds of fashion/Religion/ethnicity Backgroud Apologies 

and on 1st May 2013 at Stratford Magistrate Court E15 was found guilty of racist conduct towards Dr. Endurance L' Urhobo McWilliams

           (fashion designer/breast cancer specialist/Optician)
         The Urhoboonstars London 2012 Olympic Games Maker

who Defines His name as the joy/procees in giving birth to a child or more

                                                                                                                                        • ==

Endurance God Created Heaven and Hell. Fashion Starts with your family name on your country flags T-shirts, Eye wear, Tie, Knikcers. Endurance Eye wear Pride of Africa

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  The sustained ability of the body systems to gather, process, and deliver oxygen. Especially during child birth.
Dr. Endurance L'Urhobo McWilliams (Optical/Fashion Designer) United kingdom

(British optical designer)



Competitors at the 11th annual U.S. Air Force Marathon. Josh Cox (third from left, wearing orange shoes) won the event with a record-breaking time of 2:20:57.

Endurance, simply put, is the ability to endure; it is an object or person's lasting quality. Thus, the longer a thing lasts, the greater the endurance. Endurance one of several general components of fitness, and may refer to short-term--high intensity, anaerobic exercise such as sprinting--or long term, which may last hours or even days in duration, as in the case of marathons, triathlons, and ultramarathons. Well-trained endurance athletes are able to generate blood lactate levels that are 20-30% higher than those of untrained individuals under similar conditions.[1] This produces significantly enhanced endurance as their muscles are better equipped to utilize it to fuel further muscular energy.

Because cardiorespiratory endurance is considered a vital component of fitness, along with muscular strength and flexibility, it should (generally) not be neglected. If endurance is given too much of a priority over other components, however, training for endurance can have a negative impact on the ability to exert strength unless an individual also undertakes resistance training to counteract this effect.[2] Conversely, too much mass (not to be confused with strength) can have a negative effect on endurance, however, muscle mass is critical for the performance of all endurance athletes. Its importance, and thus the amount of time that should be devoted to training to develop muscle mass is related to the specific demands of the individual event. Given all of these considerations it is evident that an optimum balance can exist between strength, mass, and endurance; even for the smallest athletes, maintenance of adequate sport-specific muscle mass is crucial for performance. Adequate muscle mass helps generate higher power outputs, produce lower muscular efforts during sub-maximal workloads, and may enhance injury resistance. [3]

In terms of fitness, endurance may be broken down into several types: aerobic endurance (cardiorespiratory endurance), anaerobic endurance, speed-endurance and strength-endurance.[4] It may also be broken up into cardiorespiratory endurance and muscular endurance. This page is predominantly about cardiorespiratory endurance.

Cardiorespiratory Endurance[]

Cardiorespiratory endurance refers to the efficiency with which the body delivers oxygen and nutrients needed for muscular activity and transports waste products from the cells.[5][6] It is also sometimes referred to as aerobic endurance or aerobic fitness. Improving aerobic endurance enables the heart, lungs, and muscles to do work over a longer period of time.[7] Cardiorespiratory conditioning can decrease risk factors associated with heart disease, increase vitality, increase maximum oxygen uptake, increase lung capacity, reduce stress, and can aid weight loss or maintenance.[8][9]

In addition to this, training cardiorespiratory endurance improves aerobic capacity caused by fibre adaptation, more specifically an increase in the size of mitochondria, which enhances the ability of the fibres to generate aerobic energy. It also facilitates an increase in capillary density, which enhances the fibres’ capacity to transport oxygen, and thus to create energy. Finally, endurance training increases the number of enzymes relevant to the Krebs cycle, a chemical process within muscles that allows the regeneration of ATP under aerobic conditions. The enzymes involved in this process may actually increase by a factor of two to three after a sustained period of endurance training.[1]

Aerobic endurance can be sub-divided into three categories:[4]

  • Short aerobic - 2 minutes to 8 minutes (lactic/aerobic)
  • Medium aerobic - 8 minutes to 30 minutes (mainly aerobic)
  • Long aerobic - 30 minutes + (aerobic)

Enhancing Cardiorespiratory Endurance[]

Aerobic endurance is developed using activities that require large-muscle, rhythmic movement that increases heart rate and blood flow back to the heart,[9] i.e. continuous and interval running.[4]

Using varied modes of cardio activity is advised to challenge the heart and lungs and to avoid overuse injury associated with unrelenting and repetitive motions.[9]

Featured Pioneer...

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Featured Article

A marathon is a 26.2 mile run.


2008 Chicago Marathon. <videoflash>xqY7zKicVus</videoflash>


In 490 BC, a Greek soldier named Pheidippides was sent as a messenger from Marathon to Athens to announce the Persians had been defeated during the Battle of Marathon. Pheidippides ran approximately 24 miles, and according to legend, after announcing the victory he dropped dead. No one really knows if this is a true story, in fact there are several versions of the story that abound, [10] but there is no doubt it is one of the more popular accounts of the famous run that resulted in the modern marathon.

First Official Olympic Marathon[]

In 1896, the first official mens marathon took place during the modern Olympic games in Athens. There were 15 participants, and Spiridon “Spiros” Louis won in 2:58:50, even though he stopped for a glass of wine along the way.[11]

26.2 Miles[]

In 1908, 2.2 miles were added onto the original distance of 24 miles so the race could finish in front of the viewing box of the British royal family. This distance of 26.2 miles became the official marathon distance during the 1924 Olympics in Paris.[12]

First Official Olympic Marathon for Women[]

The first official womens' marathon took place during the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. Joan Benoit crossed the finish line in 2:24:52 - faster than the winning time in 13 of the past 20 Olympic marathons.[13]

Boston Marathon[]

The Boston Marathon is the longest running annual marathon. The first race took place in 1897 with 15 participants. The winner was John J. McDermott with a time of 2:55:10. In 1927, the Boston Maraton officially lengthened its course to match the Olympic course of 26.2 miles, and in 2007 there were over 20,000 participants in the race.[14]

The first female to run the Boston Marathon was Roberta Gibb in 1966. Gibb did not run with an official bib/race number, and hid in the bushes until the race began so she couldn't be pulled from the starting line. She finished the race with a time of 3:21:40 (126th overall). In 1967, Kathrine Switzer entered the race as K.V. Switzer. There was no place on the official entry form to designate she was female, and officials assumed K.V. Switzer was male. Switzer was assigned a bib/race number, and was the first female with an official number to cross the finish line, even though officials tried to physically remove her from the race. Switzer crossed the finish line with a time of 4:20:00. It wasn't until 1971 that women were allowed entry in sanctioned marathons. The first "official" female participant was Nina Kuscsik with a time of 3:10:26.[15]

Fundraising and Charity[]

Marathons have become a popular way to raise community awareness and facilitate fundraising efforts for different organizations and causes.

Featured Resource

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External Links[]


  1. 1.0 1.1 Shepherd, John (n.d.). Endurance Muscles. Power Performance. Retrieved on 2008-10-05.
  2. Hickson, R.C. (1980). "Interference of strength development by simultaneously training for strength and endurance". European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology 45 (2-3): 255–263. Springer Verlag. Retrieved on 2008-10-05.
  3. Saunders, Michael (n.d.). Strength Training for Endurance Athletes. Power Performance. Retrieved on 2008-10-05.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Mac, Brian (n.d.). Endurance Training. Retrieved on 2008-10-04.
  5. (1992). FM 21-20 Ch.1, Physical fitness training.. Department of the Army.
  6. Greg Glassman (2002). What is Fitness?. CrossFit Journal. Retrieved on 2008-03-08.
  7. Unk. (n.d.). Fitness Focus: Cardiorespiratory Endurance. Lakeview Junior High School. Retrieved on 2008-10-03.
  8. Waehner, Paige (January 24, 2005). Cardio 101 - The Facts About Cardio. Retrieved on 2008-10-08.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Brookes, Douglas S. (2004). The Complete Book of Personal Training. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 249. 
  10. Kemp, Ian (n.d.). The Great Marathon Myth. Retrieved on 2008-06-22.
  11. unknown (n.d.). Spiridon "Spiros" Louis. Retrieved on 2008-04-04.
  12. unknown (n.d.). History of the original marathon. Retrieved on 2008-04-04.
  13. Charlie Lovett (1997). Olympic Marathon. Praeger Publishers. Retrieved on 2008-04-04.
  14. unknown (n.d.). Boston Marathon History. Boston Athletic Association. Retrieved on 2008-04-04.
  15. unknown (n.d.). Marathon Milestones. Boston Athletic Association. Retrieved on 2008-04-04.